Topic : Education System in Indonesia
Title : Formal Education
Grade : SMP/MTs, SMA/MA/SMK, College/University
Script : 2009_Har [www.haarrr.wordpress.com]
Firstly, I would like to say thank you very much for the MC and juries who have given me
opportunity to deliver this English speech. Ladies and Gentlemen; It is a great honor for me to stand here and give a brief speech entitled Formal Education
Brothers and Sisters;
Education system in our country is divided into two major parts, they are formal and
non-formal. A formal education is divided into three levels: primary, secondary and
tertiary education. While non-formal education is carried out for the learners who get
difficulties to meet the requirements in formal education. An example of non-formal
education is PLS (Pendidikan Luar Sekolah). Both formal and non-formal education aim
at establishing the education process in our country.
Ladies and Gentlemen;
As I have stated previously, formal education involves three levels: primary, secondary
and tertiary education. Before entering primary or elementary school, children in our
country usually have attended kindergarten, or known as Taman Kanak-kanak. But this
education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizens, as the aim of this is just to prepare
them for primary school. Children ages 712 attend primary education at Elementary School or Sekolah Dasar.
This level of education is compulsory for all Indonesian citizens. Similar to education
systems in the U.S. and Australia, students must study for six years to complete this level.
Some schools offer an accelerated learning program, where students who perform well
can finish elementary school in five years. The next level is secondary education. After graduating from elementary school, students
attend Middle School or Junior High School (Sekolah Menengah Pertama) for three years
from the age of 13-15. After three years of schooling and graduation, students may move
on to Senior High School. In Indonesia, this school is basically divided into two kinds:
SMA (Sekolah Menengah Atas) and SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan). SMA is
different with SMK in their studies. The students at SMA are prepared to advance to
tertiary education or university, while students of SMK as a vocational school are
prepared to be ready to work after finishing their school without going to
The last level of education in our country is tertiary education. Students who have
graduated from senior high school may attend to university or academy. They can choose
any kinds of university or academy based on their interests or scopes of knowledge, for
example majoring in English, Mathematics, or teacher training university.
Ladies and Gentlemen;
Brothers and Sisters;
I think thats all my speech. I hope my brief description on the formal education in our
country will be useful for us. Finally, I would like to say sorry if there are mistakes in my speech words. Thank you very much for your attention.
Global warming is one of the most serious challenges facing us today. To protect the health and economic well-being of current and future generations, we must reduce our emissions of heat-trapping gases by using the technology, know-how, and practical solutions already at our disposal.
Tropical deforestation is the largest source of emissions for many developing countries, but slowing deforestation cant solve the climate problem by itself. As forest-rich developing countries step up to take responsibility for reducing their emissions, all industrialized nations should not only support their efforts but, most importantly, reduce their own emissions and lead efforts to avert dangerous climate change.
For years we have heard so much about the causes of climate change, that weve missed the fact that there are simple, practical solutions that can slow this growing problem. Technologies exist today that can cut emissions of heat-trapping gases and make a real difference in the health of our planet. And these solutions will be good for our economy, reduce our dependence on foreign oil, and enhance our energy security.
Global warming doesnt just mean balmy February days in northern climes. It also means increasingly hot days in the summer, and a host of negative impacts that are already under way and are expected to intensify in the
-More heat waves will likely increase the risk of heat-related illnesses and deaths.
-Cities and towns along the nations major rivers will experience more severe and frequent flooding.
-Some areas will likely experience more extensive and prolonged droughts.
-Some of our favorite coastal and low-lying vacation areas, such as parts of the Florida Keys and Cape Cod, will be much less appealing as sea levels rise, dunes erode, and the areas become more vulnerable to coastal storms.
-Many families and businesses, who have made their living from fishing, farming, and tourism could lose their livelihoods, and others who love hunting, boating, skiing, birdwatching, and just relaxing near lakes, streams, and wetlands will see some of their favorite places irretrievably changed.
The solutions to climate change are here and its time we put them to use. If we get started today we can tackle this problem and decrease the unpleasant outcomes that await us if we do nothing. The steps we need to take are common sense. And, more often than not, they will save consumers money. The cost of inaction, however, is unacceptably high.
The scientific consensus is in. Our planet is warming, and we are helping make it happen by adding more heat-trapping gases, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), to the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuel (oil, coal, and natural gas) alone accounts for about 75 percent of annual CO2 emissions from human activities. Deforestationthe cutting and burning of forests that trap and store carbonaccounts for about another 20 percent.
Procrastination is not an option. Scientists agree that if we wait 10, 20, or 50 years, the problem will be much more difficult to address and the consequences for us will be that much more serious.
Were treating our atmosphere like we once did our rivers. We used to dump waste thoughtlessly into our waterways, believing that they were infinite in their capacity to hold rubbish. But when entire fisheries were poisoned and rivers began to catch fire, we realized what a horrible mistake that was.
Our atmosphere has limits too. CO2 remains in the atmosphere for about 100 years. The longer we keep polluting, the longer it will take to recover and the more irreversible damage will be done.
Fuel-efficient vehicles. Renewable energy. Protecting threatened forests. These common sense solutions wont only reduce global warming, many will save us money and create new business opportunities.
Best of all, these solutions exist now. We just need to insist that business and government take the necessary steps to make them available and affordable. Then we have to let consumers know what to do and provide incentives to help all of us make better choices.
The following five sensible steps are available today and can have an enormous impact on the problem CO2 remains in the atmosphere for about 100 years.
Assalamu Alaikum Wr. Wb
First of all I would like to say thank you to the teacher and all my friend who has given mee nice opportunity speech on this day, about global warming.
We know global warming is serious problem which is world well in country developing and country developed. Global waming in reason by activity human which working way a ware or not a ware.
Global warming is a process to increase body temperature average atmosfer: sea and land. Stage body temperature global settlement will to cause alteration which other except to clib surface sea water, stage weather, and alteration total. Result global warming which other influenced crop agriculture, and destroyed kind animal. All energy source which can be grond originally with sun.
A part that energy inside form short wave radiation, including apperent shine when this energy to hit ground surface it changeable with shine to make hot with to warm up eart.
With temperature average large 15 C (59F), eart in fact already hot more 33 C (59F) with greenhouse effect. So that ice will to shut all grond surface but on the contrary. Result total tha t gas already more in atmosfer global warming result to become.
To protect the health and economic well-being of current and future generations, we must reduce our emissions of heat-trapping gases by using the technology, know-how, and practical solutions already at our disposal.
The Earths climate changes in response to external forcing, including variations in its orbit around the Sun (orbital forcing), volcanic eruptions, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The detailed causes of the recent warming remain an active field of research, but the scientific consensus is that the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases due to human activity caused most of the warming observed since the start of the industrial era. This attribution is clearest for the most recent 50 years, for which the most detailed data are available. Some other hypotheses departing from the consensus view have been suggested to explain most of the temperature increase. One such hypothesis proposes that warming may be the result of variations in solar activity.
None of the effects of forcing are instantaneous. The thermal inertia of the Earths oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that the Earths current climate is not in equilibrium with the forcing imposed. Climate commitment studies indicate that even if greenhouse gases were stabilized at 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.5 C (0.9 F) would still occur.
The prediction of climate change due to human activities began with a prediction made by the Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, in 1896. Arrhenius took note of the industrial revolution then getting underway and realized that the amount of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere was increasing.
Moreover, he believed carbon dioxide concentrations would continue to increase as the worlds consumption of fossil fuels, particularly coal, increased ever more rapidly. His understanding of the role of carbon dioxide in heating Earth, even at that early date, led him to predict that if atmospheric carbon dioxide doubled, Earth would become several degrees warmer. However, little attention was paid to what must have been seen to be a rather far-out prediction that had no apparent consequence for people living at that time.
Arrhenius was referring to a potential modification of what we now call the greenhouse effect. Shortwave solar radiation can pass through the clear atmosphere relatively unimpeded, but longwave infrared radiation emitted by the warm surface of the Earth is absorbed partially and then re-emitted by a number of trace gasesparticularly water vapor and carbon dioxidein the cooler atmosphere above. Because, on average, the outgoing infrared radiation balances the incoming solar radiation, both the atmosphere and the surface will be warmer than they would be without the greenhouse gases. One should distinguish between the natural and a possible enhanced greenhouse effect. The natural greenhouse effect causes the mean temperature of the Earths surface to be about 33 degrees C warmer than it would be if natural greenhouse gases were not present.
This is fortunate for the natural greenhouse effect creates a climate in which life can thrive and man can live under relatively benign conditions. Otherwise, the Earth would be a very frigid and inhospitable place.
On the other hand, an enhanced greenhouse effect refers to the possible raising of the mean temperature of the Earths surface above that occurring due to the natural greenhouse effect because of an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases due to human activities. Such a global warming would probably bring other, sometimes deleterious, changes in climate; for example, changes in precipitation, storm patterns, and the level of the oceans. The word enhanced is usually omitted, but it should not be forgotten in discussions of the greenhouse effect.
The predicted effects of global warming on the environment and for human life are numerous and varied. It is generally difficult to attribute specific natural phenomena to long-term causes, but some effects of recent climate change may already be occurring. Raising sea levels, glacier retreat, Arctic shrinkage, and altered patterns of agriculture are cited as direct consequences, but predictions for secondary and regional effects include extreme weather events, an expansion of tropical diseases, changes in the timing of seasonal patterns in ecosystems, and drastic economic impact. Concerns have led to political activism advocating proposals to mitigate, eliminate, or adapt to it.
Except to crash which resolute there are to crash which already straight we not a ware. We can see in television that in big city very much empty region but the region used to project.
So region to plantis greentree very less tree which we to see to run very less even live style them more like to use carriage than to run away. This to make weather in environment them dirtied. So that events this to grow reason global warming.
I think that all . Thank You.
Wabillahi taufik wal hidayah
Assalamu Alaikum Wr. Wb.